Vol 6 (2011)

Table of Contents

Articles

Bactropsora cascadensis, an uncommon epiphytic lichen new to Alaska PDF
Bruce McCune, Jeanne Ponzetti 1-3
Bactrospora cascadensis is reported for the first time from Alaska at a location disjunct by over 2000 km NW from its previously known locations. In addition, a new location is reported in Washington State.


Lichen ecology and diversity of a sagebrush steppe in Oregon: 1977 to the present PDF
Jesse E.D. Miller, Amy Rossman, Roger Rosentreter, Jeanne Ponzetti 1-14
We present a lichen checklist of 141 species from the Lawrence Memorial Grassland Preserve and nearby lands in Wasco County, Oregon, based on collections made in the 1970s and 1990s. Collections include epiphytic, lignicolous, saxicolous, muscicolous, and terricolous species. One of these collections is the type specimen for a recently described species, Placopyrenium conforme. To evaluate differences between collections made in the 1970s and 1990s, taxa are placed in six morphological groups: crustose, foliose, fruticose, squamulose, stratified nitrogen-fixers, and gelatinous nitrogen-fixers. We determined that recent visits to the preserve added a greater proportion of terricolous species to the list than species from other substrates, reflecting developments in the taxonomy and understanding of biological soil crusts over recent decades. The trade-off between smaller-scale study plots that capture accurate species abundance and larger plots that capture more complete species richness is amplified in the sagebrush steppe because of the small size and cryptic nature of many lichens. We discuss the benefits of both approaches to lichen monitoring in these ecosystems. This project was possible because voucher specimens were available from the original 1977 survey, which allowed us to address changes in species concepts over recent decades.


Three new host-fungus records for Golovinomyces species in Montana and Washington PDF
Frank M. Dugan 1-7
The powdery mildews Golovinomyces echinopis on Echinops exaltatus (tall globethistle), and G. biocellatus on Salvia officinalis (common sage), are documented for the first time in Washington State. Golovinomyces cynoglossi on Cynoglossum officinale (houndstongue) is documented for the first time in the state of Montana.


A new species of Daedalea (Basidiomycota) and a synopsis of core species in Daedalea sensu stricto PDF
Daniel L. Lindner, Leif Ryvarden, Timothy J. Baroni 1-12
Daedalea neotropica, a species with striking violet stains on the pileus and pore surface, is described from material collected in the Maya Mountains of Belize. A synopsis of Daedalea sensu stricto is provided based on morphological and DNA sequence data. Analyses indicate that at least four species should be included in Daedalea s.s.: D. dickinsii, D. neotropica, D. pseudodochmia, and D. quercina. A key to the species of Daedalea s.s. is provided.


Caripia montagnei (Basidiomycota: Tricholomataceae s. l.) in southeastern United States PDF
J. Ginns 1-5
This is the first report of Caripia montagnei in the United States. The collection is described and illustrated, and compared with prior descriptions of the fungus.


Pyrenopeziza plantaginis new to North America PDF
Jeffrey K. Stone, Paul M. Severns, Nathan Miller 1-4
Pyrenopeziza plantaginis is reported from leaves of Plantago lanceolata from remnant native prairie sites in Benton Co., Oregon which harbor the endangered Taylor's checkerspot. The butterfly uses P. lanceolata as a pre-diapause larval host. The fungus is associated with a leaf blight of P. lanceolata and may impair restoration of populations of Taylor's checkerspot.


Hypogymnia pulverata (Parmeliaceae) and Collema leptaleum (Collemataceae), two macrolichens new to Alaska PDF
Peter R. Nelson, James Walton, Heather Root, Toby Spribille 1-8

Hypogymnia pulverata is a foliose macrolichen distinguished by its solid medulla and laminal soredia. Though widespread in Asia, it is considered rare in North America, where it is currently known from three widely separated locations in Québec, Oregon, and Alaska.  We document the first report of this species from Alaska and from several new localities within south-central and southwestern Alaska. Collema leptaleum is a non-stratified, foliose cyanolichen distinguished by its multicellular, fusiform ascospores and a distinct exciple cell type. It is globally distributed, known most proximately from Kamchatka, Japan and eastern North America, but considered rare in Europe. It has not heretofore been reported from western North America. We report it from three locations in south-central Alaska.



A Comparison of the lichen floras of four locations in the Intermountain Western United States PDF
Gajendra Shrestha, Larry L. St. Clair 1-20

The Intermountain Region of the western United States has a rich and diverse lichen flora. Various research projects have examined the lichen communities of this region. This study compares the lichen floras of four Intermountain Area locations, Dinosaur National Monument, Utah and Colorado; the Gila Wilderness Area, New Mexico; the Manti La Sal National Forest, Utah; and the San Juan – Rio Grande National Forest, Colorado. A total of 392 species in 122 genera have been identified from these four general locations. The San Juan – Rio Grande National Forest has the highest number of species (313 species in 109 genera). The Dinosaur National Monument and the Manti La Sal National Forest lichen floras were dominated by crustose species; a condition typical of many Intermountain Area locations; however, the Gila Wilderness Area and San Juan – Rio Grande National Forest were dominated by foliose species. Substrate distribution patterns for all four sites indicated a preponderance of saxicolous species. In addition, a total of 69 pollution sensitive indicator species were identified from the four study areas of which 16 species were common to all 4 locations. The relatively high percentage of pollution sensitive species at all study areas generally suggests that air pollution-related impact on this area has been minimal.



Phylogenetic placement of four genera within the Leotiomycetes (Ascomycota) PDF
Vincent P. Hustad, Andrew N. Miller 1-13

Phylogenetic relationships are currently unknown for many taxa of discomycetes.  Type species of three genera of Leotiomycetes (Graddonia, Propolis, and Strossmayeria) and a representative of Vibrissea were sequenced for the 28S nuclear ribosomal large subunit (LSU) to determine their phylogenetic affinities.  A phylogeny of the Leotiomycetes, including numerous helotialean taxa, was constructed under maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference.  All four genera occurred in the Leotiomycetes.  Graddonia occurred as an unsupported sister clade to the aero-aquatic genera Lambertella and SpirosphaeraPropolis formed a strongly supported clade with Cyclaneusma, Marthamyces, Melittosporium, and Naemacyclus as an early-diverging member of the Leotiomycetes, while the placement of Strossmayeria and Vibrissea was supported in the Vibrissea-Loramyces clade.



Balansia hypoxylon (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) in Canada: a mycosymbiont with Danthonia spicata (Poaceae) PDF
J. Ginns 1-6
A description of Balansia hypoxylon, based primarily upon relatively recent Canadian collections from 1981 and 1983, is presented. Because B. hypoxylon is known in Canada from only 11 collections it is perceived as being rare. The range of the fungus in Canada is extended from Nova Scotia into southeastern Ontario. This note, hopefully, will encourage surveys to define the northern limit of the fungus and determine whether it is rare in Canada or simply overlooked.


Changes to publication requirements made at the XVIII International Botanical Congress in Melbourne—what does e-publication mean for you? PDF
Sandra Knapp, John McNeill, Nicholas J. Turland 1-6

Changes to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature are decided on every 6 years at Nomenclature Sections associated with International Botanical Congresses (IBC). The XVIII IBC was held in Melbourne, Australia; the Nomenclature Section met on 18-22 July 2011 and its decisions were accepted by the Congress at its plenary session on 30 July. Several important changes were made to the Code as a result of this meeting that will affect publication of new names. Two of these changes will come into effect on 1 January 2012, some months before the Melbourne Code is published. Electronic material published online in Portable Document Format (PDF) with an International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) or an International Standard Book Number (ISBN) will constitute effective publication, and the requirement for a Latin description or diagnosis for names of new taxa will be changed to a requirement for a description or diagnosis in either Latin or English. In addition, effective from 1 January 2013, new names of organisms treated as fungi must, in order to be validly published, include in the protologue (everything associated with a name at its valid publication) the citation of an identifier issued by a recognized repository (such as MycoBank). Draft text of the new articles dealing with electronic publication is provided and best practice is outlined.


To encourage dissemination of the changes made to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, this article will be published in Brittonia, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, BMC Evolutionary Biology, Cladistics, Mycotaxon, MycoKeys, New Phytologist, North American Fungi, Novon, Opuscula Philolichenum, PhytoKeys, Phytoneuron, Phytotaxa, Plant Diversity and Resources, Systematic Botany and Taxon.



Entocybe is proposed as a new genus in the Entolomataceae (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) based on morphological and molecular evidence PDF
Timothy J. Baroni, Valerie Hofstetter, David L. Largent, Rytas Vilgalys 1-19
Morphological and molecular characteristics support the recognition of a well-defined taxonomic group within the Entolomataceae. The distinctive basidiospore form and a three locus DNA analysis separate the species that share these characteristics from other species of Entoloma s. l. We propose here a new genus, Entocybe, to accommodate these taxa.


Inonotus macrosporus sp. nov. (Fungi: Basidiomycota: Hymenochaetales) on live Fraxinus nigra in Wisconsin, United States of America PDF
J. Ginns 1-5

A new species of Inonotus is proposed because it has a unique combination of morphological characters. No other species of the Hymenochaetaceae has all of these features (1) a pileate basidioma, (2) a duplex context, (3) large, pigmented, thick-walled basidiospores, (4) tramal setal hyphae, and (5) hymenial setae. The generic placement of the fungus is discussed and several similar species are differentiated from it.



Phragmidium violaceum on Rubus armeniacus and R. laciniatus in British Columbia PDF
B.E. Callan, R. Wall, P. Dale, V. Joshi 1-5

Phragmidium violaceum, an introduced pathogenic rust fungus causing leaf spots and blight is reported for the first time in British Columbia from locations on central and south central Vancouver Island and the lower mainland near Aldergrove. Its hosts are two invasive introduced weed species: Rubus armeniacus, Himalayan blackberry, and R. laciniatus, evergreen blackberry. The identification of the rust was confirmed by both morphological observations and molecular techniques, and the current known distribution of the pathogen in BC is described.



First report of rust of Sidalcea malviflora (dwarf checkerbloom) caused by Puccinia sherardiana in Washington State PDF
Frank M. Dugan, Mare Nazaire 1-5

Puccinia sherardiana is first reported on Sidalcea malviflora in Washington State. The rust occurs on many other taxa in the Malvaceae in numerous geographic locales, and seeds of S. malviflora are widely available for gardeners, but reports of the rust on S. malviflora are rare.



Gyalideopsis mexicana, a new report for North America and a remarkable disjunction from Central America PDF
James C. Lendemer 1-5

Gyalideopsis mexicana, a morphologically unusual species in the lichen family Gomphillaceae, is reported from the Yukon Territory of Canada. The species was originally described from montane Chihuahua, Mexico. This report represents a remarkable disjunction and is the first report for North America north of Mexico. The first color illustrations of the species are also provided.