Vol 8 (2013)

Table of Contents

Articles

Golovinomyces spadiceus causing powdery mildew on Coreopsis hybrid 'Full Moon' (Heliantheae, Asteraceae) in Washington State PDF
Frank M. Dugan 1-3
Golovinomyces spadiceus is reported from Coreopsis 'Full Moon' in Washington State.


Geography and hosts of the wood decay fungi Fomes fasciatus and Fomes fomentarius in the United States PDF
Meghan A. McCormick, Marc A. Cubeta, Larry F. Grand 1-53
Comprehensive United States county distribution maps of Fomes fasciatus and F. fomentarius were developed based on peer-reviewed publications, records from mycological herbaria and collections made for this study. The geographic distribution was expanded for both species to include a total of seven counties in five states not included in previous publications and records. North Carolina and Tennessee were the only states where both species occurred, but their distributions did not overlap when resolved to the county level. Both fungi occurred on a diverse range of hardwood tree hosts, and in this study, 11 and 17 new hosts associations were identified for F. fasciatus and F. fomentarius, respectively. The extension of host distributions beyond the known range for each fungus suggests that other delimiting factors may contribute to the distribution of F. fasciatus and F. fomentarius.


The Lichen Flora of the Spring Mountains, Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest, Nevada, USA PDF
Monica W. Proulx, Lary L. St. Clair 1-21
124 lichen species in 48 genera are reported for the Spring Mountains, Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada. The Spring Mountains are a sky island mountain range in the Mojave Desert located approximately 25 km northwest of Las Vegas. This species list includes 58% of the 217 species in 68 genera reported to date for the Mojave Desert. This survey was based on extensive collections made between 1997 and 2007 as part of an air quality bio-monitoring program and baseline established in the Spring Mountains, Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest. This report represents a major contribution to our understanding of the lichen flora of Nevada in particular and the Mojave Desert in general.


Mycobiota of Lupinus albus seeds from a public germplasm collection PDF
M.M. Alomran, S. L. Lupien, F. M. Dugan 1-15
Seedborne mycobiota of Lupinus albus was assessed using blotter paper and agar media with Rose Bengal or semi-selective media for Pythium or Fusarium. Samples of 200 seeds were taken from each of 16 inventories, comprising 14 accessions originating from Germany, France, Ukraine, Syria, Hungary or Spain, and increased 1-2 times through propagation by the USDA-ARS Western Regional Plant Introduction Station. A total of 307 fungus isolates were recovered and preserved with over 96% belonging to 10 genera: Penicillium (47%), Cladosporium (32%, including Cladosporium-like Chalastospora), Alternaria (4%), Aspergillus (4%), Fusarium (3%), Rhizopus (3%), Ulocladium (3%), Chaetomium (0.5%) and Arthrinium (< 0.5%). By sub-sampling, fungi were further identified by morpho-cultural characters and/or DNA sequences as Alternaria infectoria, A. alternata, and A. tenuissima species-groups, Arthrinium arundinus, Aspergillus niger, Chalastospora gossypii, Cladosporium herbarum and C. cladosporioides species complexes, Chaetomium sp., Fusarium acuminatum, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Ulocladium atrum group. Penicillia included P. hordei, but most Penicillia could not be assigned species names either by morphological traits or β-tubulin DNA sequence data.


Amanita augusta, a new species from California and the Pacific Northwest PDF
Dimitar Bojantchev, R. Michael Davis 1-11

Amanita augusta, formerly known under the misapplied European name A. franchetii, is described as a new species from California and the Pacific Northwest. Here we discuss the phylogeny of A. augusta in the context of genus Amanita, subsection Validae, and also provide taxonomic and phylogenetic notes on A. franchetii s.s. and its varieties.



Systematics of the genus Auricularia with an emphasis on species from the southeastern United States PDF
Brian P. Looney, Joshua M. Birkebak, P. Brandon Matheny 1-25

The genus Auricularia comprises 10–15 recognized species worldwide, and most are considered to have intercontinental to cosmopolitan distributions. Though regional field guides for the southeastern United States treat only one or two species, five species, A. fuscosuccinea, A. auricula-judae, A. mesenterica, A. polytricha, and A. delicata, have been recorded from the region. This study seeks to evaluate and revise current species concepts in Auricularia using phylogenetic and morphological methods to better understand the species occurring in the southeastern United States. Historical collections from herbaria and fresh material from the field have been examined and sequenced at two loci, ITS and rpb2. Phylogenetic results indicate several diverse clades are in need of taxonomic revision. Previous reports of A. auricula-judae in the southeastern U.S. likely represent a clade of A. americana. Collections identified as A. delicata are found to be polyphyletic and distributed in four clades. Variation in the presence or absence of a medulla layer in some species, previously a key morphological character, has made it evident that additional characters are required to reflect the genetic diversity in the genus. A new taxonomic character, the schizomedulla, is discussed and shown to distinguish two novel species, A. subglabra and A. scissa, from the morphologically similar species A. delicata. A reticulate, merulioid hymenial surface can no longer be considered a character unique to A. delicata. Furthermore, ITS data from the voucher-specimen from which the genome of A. delicata was produced indicates this species is A. subglabra. The taxonomy and nomenclature of Peziza nigricans is discussed and it is shown to be the earliest priorable name for A. polytricha sensu auct. amer., and the new combination Auricularia nigricans is proposed. We now recognize the following species of Auricularia from the southeastern U.S.: A. americana, A. fuscosuccinea, A. mesenterica, A. nigricans, and A. scissa.



Phytophthora pluvialis, a new species from mixed tanoak-Douglas-fir forests of western Oregon, U.S.A. PDF
Paul Reeser, Wendy Sutton, Everett Hansen 1-8

A new species, Phytophthora pluvialis is described. P. pluvialis has been recovered from streams, soil and canopy drip in the mixed tanoak-Douglas-fir forest in Curry County, Oregon, and in two additional streams in other areas of western Oregon. It has been found only rarely in association with twig and stem cankers on tanoak but not with any other plant host. The earliest isolate of P. pluvialis was from soil in 2002. P. pluvialis is classified in ITS Clade 3.



A New Squamulose Sarcogyne from Oregon PDF
Kerry Knudsen, Bruce McCune 1-6

Sarcogyne squamosa is newly described from Oregon, USA. It was found on noncalcareous rock in shrub steppe, where it forms reddish brown cushions of imbricate, stipitate squamules. The squamulose thallus with erumpent and sessile apothecia is unique for this genus. This is the third species in the genus with a corticate thallus. 



A new Vestigium on Abies balsamea PDF
R.A. Shoemaker, D. Malloch, S. Hambleton, M. Liu 1-6

A second species of Vestigium is described and contrasted with V. felicis known from Oregon and B.C. on Thuja plicata. The new species occurs on needles of Abies balsamea in New Brunswick and is compared with Rhizothyrium abietis, the anamorph of Rhizocalyx abietis. Molecular studies of the new species show affinity with Chlorencoeliaceae, Dermateaceae, Hemiphacidiaceae or Hyaloscyphaceae.



Vialaea insculpta revisited PDF
R.A. Shoemaker, S. Hambleton, M. Liu 1-13

Vialaea insculpta, occurring on Ilex aquifolium, is illustrated and redescribed from nature and pure culture to assess morphological features used in its classification and to report new molecular studies of the Vialaeaceae and its ordinal disposition.  Tests of the germination of the distinctive ascospores in water containing parts of Ilex flowers after seven days resulted in the production of appressoria without mycelium. Phylogenetic analyses based on a fragment of ribosomal RNA gene small subunit suggest that the taxon belongs in Xylariales.



Lichens and Lichenicolous Fungi of Yosemite National Park, California PDF
M. Hutten, U. Arup, O. Breuss, T. L. Esslinger, A. M. Fryday, K. Knudsen, J. C. Lendemer, C. Printzen, H. T. Root, M. Schultz, J. Sheard, T. Tønsberg, B. McCune 1-47

We compiled literature, intensively studied 15 sites as a group, and collected opportunistically in other areas of the Yosemite National Park. We report a total of 562 species of lichenized fungi from the Park, adding 461 species to the total of 101 species reported for the Park by the National Park Service database. An additional 22 lichenicolous fungi are reported here. Two nonlichenized fungi associated with young living twigs of particular host species are also included. An additional 75 species that are known from nearby areas in the Sierra Nevada, but not yet from Yosemite, are listed. Fourteen species are apparently newly reported for the Sierra Nevada, with an additional 17 species new to California, and five species new to North America (Gyalidea fritzei, Pyrenopsis reducta, Lecanora pseudosarcopidoides, L. sarcopidoides, L. subravida). Two taxonomic changes are included here: Verrucaria carbonusta Breuss is newly described, and Lecidea fuscoatrina Hertel & Leuckert is synonymized under the earlier but neglected name, L. cascadensis H. Magn.



Uncovering chemical variability: molecular data reveal the identity of a sterile crustose lichen from the Yukon and affirm an expanded circumscription for Buellia griseovirens PDF
Jessica L. Allen, James C. Lendemer 1-14

Here we present the results of a study using molecular data (nrITS and mtSSU sequences) to aid in the identification of a sterile, sorediate crustose lichen from the Yukon Territory of Canada. BLASTn and megaBLAST indicated an affinity to the family Caliciaceae, specifically the Buellioideae. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of mtSSU sequences from the Caliciaceae affirmed this placement, and recovered a strongly supported clade composed of the unidentified populations and members of Buellia s.l. Internal transcribed spacer sequences of the taxon were >99% similar to two sequences of B. griseovirens, a relationship supported by additional molecular phylogenetic analyses. This is the first report of the occurrence of norstictic acid deficient populations of B. griseovirens from North America. It is also the first study to use molecular data to examine, and confirm, some of the chemical variability in B. griseovirens proposed in previous revisions.



Thelomma ocellatum, a range extension to the Yukon Territory and case study in the use of molecular data to recognize asexually reproducing crustose lichens PDF
James C. Lendemer 1-13

An unusual sterile, asexually reproducing crustose lichen was encountered during fieldwork in the Yukon Territory of Canada. Genus and family level placement of the taxon were precluded by a lack of both sexual characters and any non-sexual characters that would have suggested an unambiguous generic affiliation. Examination of mtSSU and nrITS sequence data of the taxon revealed it to be a member of the Caliciaceae, with a sister relationship to the genus Tholurna. Subsequent molecular phylogenetic analyses of mtSSU sequence data suggested conspecificity with Thelomma ocellatum, one of the few calicioid lichens that reproduce asexually via lichenized diaspores. Comparison of the material from the Yukon with reference specimens and descriptions of T. ocellatum confirmed the identification of these populations, which extend the known distribution of T. ocellatum considerably northward in North America.



Isolation of Geotrichum candidum pathogenic to tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in Washington State PDF
T. B. Bourret, E. K. Kramer, J. D. Rogers, D. A. Glawe 1-7

Geotrichum candidum was isolated from fruit of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in Washington state. Cultural and morphological features, and rDNA sequence data, are reported. Koch's postulates were completed on tomato fruit. This is the first report of this fungus causing disease of tomato in Washington state.



Diversity and molecular determination of wild yeasts in a central Washington State vineyard PDF
Tyler B. Bourret, Gary G. Grove, George J. Vandemark, Thomas Henick-Kling, Dean A. Glawe 1-32

Yeasts were isolated from grapes collected from a research vineyard at the WSU-IAREC, located at Prosser, WA. Species determination was based on cultural features, microscopic morphology, physiological tests and analysis of ITS and D1/D2 rDNA sequence data. Fifty-three species were found distributed among five fungal subphyla, a greater number than expected based on similar published studies. Within Saccharomycotina, 13 species in the genera Candida, Hanseniaspora, Metschnikowia, Meyerozyma, Pichia, Wickerhamomyces and Yamadazyma were determined. Isolates within the Metschnikowia pulcherrima clade appeared to possess considerable diversity. Pucciniomycotina was represented by 12 species, in Curvibasidium, Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, Sporidiobolus and Sporobolomyces. Five phylogenetically distinct species in the subphylum could not be assigned to any described species. Isolates in Ustilaginomycotina were placed in Pseudozyma except for a single strain determined to be Rhodotorula bacarum.Within Agaricomycotina, 17 species in the genera Cryptococcus, Cystofilobasidium, Hannaella, Holtermanniella and Mrakiella were determined. Seven species of yeast-like Pezizomycotina were found, representing classes Leotiomycetes, Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes. Isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans represented three phylogenetically distinct subspecific lineages.Seventeen species identified in this study were previously unreported from wine grapes and 18 species were unreported from North America. Several strains appear to represent undescribed species, including the recently described Curvibasidium rogersii



Species diversity and ecological patterns of Phaeoclavulina species in Mexico with implications for conservation PDF
Patricia González-Ávila, Andrés Torres-Miranda, Margarita Villegas-Ríos, Isolda Luna-Vega 1-32
Species of Phaeoclavulina (formerly genus Ramaria, subgenus Echinoramaria) have been reported in temperate, tropical and subtropical areas of the world. In Mexico, these species occur from sea level to 3200 m. Based on 132 distribution records of 22 species, patterns of species rarity and richness were determined using a grid-cell system of 1° x 1° latitude/longitude. The highest species richness areas were Sierra Madre Oriental and Serranías Meridionales, while species were rare in the areas of Jalisco (Pacific coast and Altiplanicie), Guerrero and Oaxaca (Serranías Meridionales) and Chiapas (Serranías Transístmicas). The distribution of eight species was modeled and the precision and accuracy of these models were analyzed based on kappa concordance tests. The models for the temperate species sets (list the species) presented high kappa values while the tropical species sets (list the species) presented low kappa values. When we maximized the variation of the models, we found congruence between the richness zones identified in the grid-cells. The ecological-morphological segregation of the Mexican species was evaluated with a PCA analysis, resulting in two groups. The first included species inhabiting mainly tropical and subtropical areas (list the species) characterized by more evident basidiospore ornamentation consisting of large spines. A second group of species (list the species) inhabits mainly temperate forests in higher altitudes and these species have less evident basidiospore ornamentation consisting of small warts. The current known distribution of these fungi is intimately correlated with environmental factors. Based on our results, we propose priority conservation areas based on taxonomic richness and higher corrected weighted endemism index values which coincide with the analysis of potential distribution of these species; the montane systems of central and southeastern Mexico and the northwestern part of the Yucatan peninsula. These temperate fungi could grow in several other neighboring Natural Protected Areas, but their presence must be confirmed. The situation with the tropical species is more critical as there are few neighboring Natural Protected Areas where these fungi could have special protection.


Macrolichen Communities of Quercus garryana in the Puget Trough and Columbia River Gorge Areas of Washington State PDF
John Villella, Daphne Stone, Lalita M. Calabria, Gregory D. Eide 1-22
We investigated macrolichen diversity on Quercus garryana at ten sites in the Puget Trough and Columbia River Gorge areas of Washington.  The known ranges of some oak-associated species are expanded within Washington and occurrences of several species new to the state are reported. We identified 111 lichen taxa, 80 of which occurred at more than one site and three species,Fuscopannaria pulveracea, Placidium fingens and Collema quadrifidum, which are reported for the first time for Washington. We report four additional species, Bryoria furcellata, Dendriscocaulon intricatulum, Usnea cavernosa and Waynea californica, which are reported from oaks on two or fewer sites in Washington prior to this study. We compiled records from herbaria and other Washington oak lichen studies to evaluate the rarity of observed species and potentially rare species known from nearby locations. Using macrolichens we developed an Index of Ecological Continuity for oak habitats in Washington to help land managers assess the health of the lichen communities on oaks. We also recorded lichen species diversity and abundance in air quality monitoring plots at six of our sites in order to assess the threat level from increasing air pollution to oak lichens. We discuss the effects of management practices on lichen diversity and abundance at oak sites and suggest species of interest for future conservation efforts.