Vol 3 (2008)

A Festschrift in Honor of Professor Jack D. Rogers

Table of Contents

Articles

A Festschrift in Honor of Professor Jack D. Rogers PDF
Dean A. Glawe, Joseph F. Ammirati 1-4
Introduction to this Festschrift.


The identity of European and North American Boletopsis spp. (Basidiomycota; Thelephorales, Boletopsidaceae) PDF
Roy Watling, Jeremy Milne 5-15
The identity of Boletopsis collections from North America was compared with material from Europe using molecular techniques. Sequencing of the complete ITS region was conducted to see whether or not the European material could be correlated with that from North America as the presently accepted synonymy would suggest. It was found that the North American collections could be separated into two taxa. Boletopsis grisea, as previously reported for material from both Eastern and Western States of North America; and a second taxon, Bperplexa, a newly recognized species from the British Isles, and not European B. leucomelaena, as the literature would suggest. There appears to be at least four distinct species of Boletopsis in North America: BgriseaBperplexa recently described from native Pinus sylvestris woodlands of Scotland; Bsmithii; and an undetermined taxon. The latter requires further collections and analysis.


Jumillera rogersii sp. nov. from Taiwan PDF
Yu-Ming Ju, Huei-Mei Hsieh 17-21
Jumillera rogersii and its cultures and synanamorphs are described. It features a grayish stromatal surface, interperithecial tissue largely of fungal origin, conspicuously inequilateral ascospores, and Libertella and Geniculosporium synanamorphs.


Fungi, Folkways and Fairy Tales: Mushrooms & Mildews in Stories, Remedies & Rituals, from Oberon to the Internet PDF
Frank M. Dugan 23-72
Fungi are manifest in a multiplicity of folktales and fairy tales, and in folk remedies and rituals. They appear as foods, poisons, diseases, decorations, dyes or tinder, and even in insults, compliments, graffiti and video games. These and other impacts of fungi on folkways are here concisely reviewed under categories likely to interest professional and amateur mycologists and accessible to the lay reader. The evolution of popular perceptions of fungi is sketched from Shakespearean times through contemporary European and American cultures. Provided are specific instances of how different cultures utilized or avoided fungi, responded to fungal diseases of crops or humans, or viewed fungi in the context of popular belief, superstition or religion.


The "red Hypoxylons" of the temperate and subtropical Northern hemisphere PDF
Marc Stadler, Jacques Fournier, Alfred Granmo, Esperanza Beltrán-Tejera 73-125
Selected taxa of Hypoxylon from the Northern hemisphere were compared with numerous type and authentic specimens of H. fuscumH. rubiginosum, and presumably related taxa. Besides morphological analyses, we used secondary metabolite profiles based on high performance liquid chromatography, coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/MS). Chemotaxonomic studies on the Nitschke and Persoon types of the above names and further ancient type specimens turned out to be rather conclusive. Along with the information provided in the world monograph of Hypoxylon by Ju and Rogers, the results of our HPLC profiling studies are regarded as key asset to provide a better overview on the diversity and biogeography of these species complexes. The utility of this approach is demonstrated by a study on Hypoxylon in the Canary Islands. From a comparison of morphological and chemical traits with the above mentioned material, we recognize two new species (H. canariense and H. urriesii). The predominantly tropical H. anthochroum and H. subrutilum were also found from this archipelago, but representatives of these taxa from different parts of the world showed heterogeneous HPLC profiles. The number of accepted species in Hypoxylon might increase substantially, once an inventory of their tropical representatives, based on holomorphic morphology and considering the importance of their stromatal extrolites, has been completed.


Woody desert puffballs of the Pacific Northwest 1: Chlamydopus meyenianus PDF
Lorelei L. Norvell, Joseph F. Ammirati, Scott A. Redhead 127-138
Observation of a population of Chlamydopus meyenianus over a fifteen-year period provides insights into the development of an infrequently collected woody stalked gasteromycete. Color photographs of Chlamydopus collections from an Oregon site along Interstate Highway 84 from 1993-2008 illustrate for the first time its complete development from late spring emergence (with all external tissues intact) to the more commonly encountered 'bones' of specimens dried in situ during the summer. Other desert puffballs are also briefly discussed.


Distribution and occurrence of Ascomycetes in Mexico PDF
María C. González, Richard T. Hanlin 139-146
Mexico, with a land surface area of 1.97 M sq. km., has a topography that varies from high plains in the north, to tall volcanic mountains in the south-central region, to lowlands in the south, as well as extensive coastlines. Southern Mexico is the area where the temperate climate of North America unites with the tropical climate of Central and South America, resulting in a highly diverse ecosystem that supports an abundant biota, including ascomycetes. The mycological literature was reviewed for records of ascomycetes from Mexico, which yielded 1,331 species plus 24 varieties, for a total of 1,355 identified taxa of ascomycetes known from the country. Approximately 35% of these are lichenized. The anamorphic ascomycetes were not included in this compilation. Taxonomically, these ascomycetes are distributed among 414 genera belonging to 41 orders and 126 families. The Xylariales is the best studied group, with 100 species of Xylaria and 48 species of Hypoxylon recordedOther common genera are Parmotrema (36), Laboulbenia (32), Cladonia (30), Podospora (29), Heterodermia (27), Meliola (22), Sporormiella (21) andHypotrachyna (21). Peziza and Morchella are the most common discomycetes, with 14 and 13 species, respectively. With regard to geographical distribution, the most explored areas in the country are the State of Veracruz, the State of Mexico, the State of Oaxaca, and the State of Chiapas located in the central-southeast region of the country, and the least studied areas are the State of Nayarit, the State of Aguascalientes, and the Peninsula of Baja California.


Is rye bunt, Tilletia secalis, present in North America? PDF
Lori M. Carris, Lisa A. Castlebury 147-159
A volunteer rye plant (Secale cereale) infected by a reticulate spored species of Tilletia was collected in a wheat field in southeastern Idaho in 1993 (WSP 71279). The smut fungus was identified as Tilletia contraversa, the dwarf bunt pathogen of wheat, based on teliospore morphology and stunting of the host. Inoculation studies conducted in the greenhouse confirmed that the rye-infecting bunt was able to infect wheat. A phylogenetic analysis based on the internal transcribed spacer region rDNA, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 alpha, and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II demonstrated that the rye-infecting bunt was distinct from T. contraversa and the common bunt pathogens of wheat, T. caries and T. laevis. The rye-infecting bunt fits within the species concept of T. secalis, a pathogen of cultivated rye in Europe. The ability of TcontraversaT. cariesand T. laevis to infect rye and of T. secalis to infect wheat has resulted in confusion over the identity of bunts found infecting rye. This study is the first demonstration in North America of a bunt fungus infecting rye that is genetically distinct from the wheat bunt pathogens.


Early illustrations of Xylaria species PDF
Donald H. Pfister 161-166
Four 17th and early 18th Century examples of illustrations of Xylaria species are presented. One of the earliest illustrations of a Xylaria species is that in Mentzel's Pugillus rariorum plantarum published in 1682 and which Fries referred to Sphaeria polymorpha. A 1711 illustration by Marchant is noteworthy in the detail of the observations; perithecia and ascospores are noted and illustrated. Marchant considered this fungus to be related to marine corals. The plate was subsequently redone and incorporated by Micheli in his 1729 publication, Nova plantarum genera; this Micheli plate was listed by Fries under a different species, Sphaeria digitata. Although Fries mentions several illustrations of Sphaeria hypoxylon not all the sources he cited contain illustrations. The earliest illustration associated with this species that was located is Micheli's in 1729. These illustrations are included along with discussion of the authors and books in which the illustrations appear.


Annotated List of Boletes and Amanita in the Hawaiian Islands PDF
Don E. Hemmes, Dennis E. Desjardin 167-176
Five species of boletes, Chalciporus piperatusSuillus brevipesS. granulatusS. salmonicolor, and Pulveroboletus xylophilusand three species of AmanitaA. marmorata subsp. myrtacearumA. muscaria var. formosa, and A. manicata have been collected in the Hawaiian Islands. The boletes are associated with introduced pines and the Amanita are associated with introduced pines, Myrtaceae and Casuarina. Pulveroboletus xylophilus and Amanita manicata appear to be saprotrophic instead of mycorrhizal.


Phaeocollybia longistipitata sp. nov. from Costa Rica PDF
Roy E. Halling, Egon Horak 177-185
Phaeocollybia longistipitata is described as a new species from the Talamanca Mountains of Costa Rica. Macroscopically, the taxon is easily recognized both by its small and slender stature and the very long, equally cylindrical stipe lacking a distinctive pseudorhiza. This differs markedly from the gradual or abruptly tapering to fusoid pseudorhiza shape usually found in the genus. Distinctive microscopic features are the amygdaliform roughened basidiospore with an unusually low apical callus and the presence of clamp connections.


First report of Nemania serpens var. hydnicola in Canada, and production of the teleomorph in culture PDF
B. E. Callan 187-192
Nemania serpens (Pers.: Fr.) S.F. Gray var. hydnicola (Schwein.) Y.-M. Ju & J.D. Rogers is reported for the first time in Canada, fruiting on a decaying Fomitopsis pinicola sporocarp collected in Victoria, BC. Freshly ejected ascospores were germinated in culture, and produced both a Geniculosporium anamorph and the teleomorph on oatmeal agar. The isolate failed to produce teleomorphic stromata on scratch malt extract medium.


Montane and cloud forest specialists among neotropical Xylaria species PDF
D. Jean Lodge, Thomas Læssøe, M. Catherine Aime, Terry W. Henkel 193-213
We compared records of neotropical Xylaria species among Belize, Ecuador, the Guianas, Mexico, Puerto Rico and Venezuela to determine if there were neotropical taxa consistently found only in cloud forest or high montane forests that might be endangered by climate change. Historical reports were combined with new records from Belize and Guyana. A few collections from the Cerro de la Neblina expeditions in Venezuela were redetermined. Foliicolous (5) and fruit inhabiting (3) species, and species restricted to one country (14) were overrepresented among the 16 species found only in cloud forest as compared to other habitats. The data indicate that several species appear to be specialists of cloud or high montane forests that may be adversely affected by climate change. These include two neotropical cloud forest specialists restricted to that habitat in more than one country ( X. cordovensis,and X. magnoliae ), three species reported only from cloud forest and high montane forests (X. corniculata ined., X. pasochoae ined. and X. phosporea ), and another 21 species reported from a single country that probably include additional cloud forest or high montane specialists. An additional four widely distributed Xylaria taxa occurred primarily in cloud forests and might also be affected by climate change.


Characterization of Seuratia millardetii on Camellia species and in artificial culture PDF
Ian M. Gillis, Dean A. Glawe 215-229
A sooty mold-like disease of Camellia species is observed frequently in the Pacific Northwest but the identity of the causal organism has not been reported. To clarify taxonomy of the fungus associated with the disorder, affected Camellia leaves were collected from locations in Seattle, WA, and from the Camellia collection of the Washington Park Arboretum, University of Washington. The fungus on affected leaves was determined to be Seuratia millardetii (anamorph: Atichia glomerulosa ), a member of the Myriangiales sensu Barr known previously from conifer species in the region. Fungal colonies ranged from less than 0.1 mm to 5 mm in diameter, and were cushion-shaped to lobed. Colonies consisted of a peridium of melanized cells containing enclosing globose, hyaline cells in a gelatinous matrix; hyphae were lacking. Dimorphic macroconidia and microconidia (determined in this study to be phialospores) typical of A. glomerulosa were observed. The teleomorph included bitunicate asci and ascospores typical of S. millardetii. Observation with SEM confirmed that colonies grew superficially on leaves without penetrating them. Colonies in culture resembled those on host leaves, produced dimorphic macroconidia, but grew indeterminately to become several cm across. The fungus was observed on several named cultivars of C. japonicaC. sasanqua, and C. x williamsii. Although known previously from a wide variety of angiosperm and conifer hosts, this is the first time S. millardetii has been reported on Camellia spp. This is also the first report of the teleomorph of this fungus in the Pacific Northwest, and the first description of the fungus in artificial culture.


A new species of Camarops and phylogenetic analysis of related taxa in the Boliniaceae PDF
Sabine M. Huhndorf, Andrew N. Miller 231-239
Camarops rogersii is described as a new species in the family Boliniaceae (Order Boliniales) from Puerto Rico, distinguished by confluent, monostichous, soft, brightly-colored stromata. It is most similar to Camarops flava and Mollicamarops stellata. These taxa differ in ascospore morphologies, distant geographic distributions and their occurrence in distinct habitats. Camaropella pugillus is reassessed based on a collection from North Carolina and compared to Camaropella lutea. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear 28S large subunit (LSU) DNA sequences supports the recognition of these taxa.


New species of Pouzarella (Entolomataceae, Agaricales) from the Dominican Republic and Jamaica PDF
Timothy J. Baroni, Sharon A. Cantrell, Omar Paíno Perdomo-Sánchez, D. Jean Lodge 241-260
Four new species of Pouzarella are described from the Dominican Republic and this report is the first of this genus from Hispaniola. A new variety of one of these newly described species is also described from Jamaica. Crinipellis (Pouzarella)squamifolia, previously described from Jamaica by Murrill, is also discussed and illustrated. A new record for the Dominican Republic, P. caribaea, is also reported. We now know of seven species and varieties of Pouzarella from the Greater Antillean islands in the Caribbean.


Armillaria solidipes, an older name for the fungus called Armillaria ostoyae PDF
Harold H. Burdsall Jr., Thomas J. Volk 261-267
The name Armillaria ostoyae has been applied for nearly 40 years to the Armillaria species that causes a major root-rot of conifers throughout Europe, the northern United States, much of Canada, and more recently in China. However, C.H. Peck described this species in 1900 under the name A. solidipes, well before the name A. ostoyae was coined by Romagnesi in 1970. Thus, the name A. solidipes must be used for the taxon wherever it occurs.